All Posts by 375Kytocker157

Graham Stephan Course– The YouTube Creator Academy Review 2019

Your success with YouTube is all about the numbers. You know that.

But how do you reach those high ranks without a big spend?

There are specific tactics for organic growth known to only a few Youtubers. They cultivate a powerful following, which means serious monetization.

I’ve taken many courses in pursuit of a successful living for myself, including this one.

I make $50k per month leveraging the skills I’ve learned with online marketing via various platforms. The one that benefits me the most is using Google and applying a few genius strategies, most of which are contained in this business lead generation course.

I’ll be reviewing Graham’s course and will also be comparing a career in Youtube plus the business lead generation strategy I personally use to supplement my passive income further on…

Who is Graham Stephan?

Graham Stephan dipped his toe in digital marketing as a side hustle. Just a way to earn on top of his full-time job.

He never would have thought that his success with YouTube would lead to huge followings and a steady stream of income from monetized video content.

He would be the first to tell you that he had plans to quit is nine-to-five. But he did.

Now he is ready to share all that he has learned from his YouTube journey and how it can be your success story too.

The YouTube Creator Academy Summary

When we think YouTube, we think social influencers. Those young kids who make millions making video journals about their lives. Not everybody has that charisma. At least Graham didn’t. 

But he still wanted part of the YouTube money action.

That’s what makes this course so amazing. This is a digital marketing course that literally turns your video content into a revenue channel.

Graham shows you the basics of building a strong video library that captures audiences.

No, this is not some big-time influencer approach. It’s simpler, but it works.

Your how-to videos, review videos and other content that has a lot more to do with content than personality pull in big numbers too.

Graham shows you why informational video content is one of the biggest attractions on YouTube. Viewers come to YouTube every day for info on tons of different stuff.

If you own that content then you get those eyeballs. 

But this is just the beginning of what YouTube Creator Academy teaches. You will also learn:

·         How to optimize your YouTube pages with written content

·         Create video titles that impact SEO

·         Generate links that act as affiliate backlinking revenue

·         Develop thumbnails that catch the eye of YouTube viewers

·         Build channels to relevant audiences and target to them

·         Promote content through other social media channels to build your awareness

Graham shows you how to easily work the YouTube dashboard to create high quality content.

He shows you how to begin with a YouTube strategy so that you know where to begin and what your target goals should be.

Graham take you through the process of building individual video pages including tagging pages for enhanced optimization.

He shows you how to build subscriber lists through social media channels. How to use groups to build up audiences on specific topics and make them devoted followers.

In time, your subscription list and views will skyrocket. The methods Graham uses are quick and easy approaches to earning heavily on your video content.

Once you get those views and subscriptions, you can watch your page begin to monetize big time. 

Graham’s Course is Great for Aspiring Youtubers, But the Real Money is Here…

It’s quite the simple business model.

Since small businesses don’t have time to market themselves online.

We generate leads and forward the calls to them.

We help them get the business of those who are on their phones searching for services or products like theirs.

Here is how I’d compare business lead gen with being a Youtuber

Cons of Youtube

  • Increased exposure can lead to creating a bad reputation easily.
  • Editing videos require time and money.
  • Will be time-consuming as you will need to upload regularly.
  • Constant criticism from people on the Internet

Why I Chose Business Lead Gen:

  • Once the website is ranked it requires little to no maintenance
  • Build relationships with local businesses
  • No worries if a client drops you, you own the website
  • Scale easily and reliably

With our skills, we get our lead generation sites ranked to the top of Google, like this limo service:

We own all the sites we build, down to the tracking phone number we use.

We forward the lead to our client and they close the deal.

They get paid, we get paid.

Simple as that.

And don’t worry about the maintenance.  Once the sites are ranked, they stay ranked with minimal to no maintenance.

A real passive income.  One that can help better your life.

I have about 80 sites build coast to coast all paying me monthly to generate and forward these leads.

Some of my sites have not been touched since 2014, like this tree care site:

I’m sure you would like to know how much you can make with such an easy biz model.

$2K per month of pure profit.

I have been building these sites since 2014 and I have not stopped because I haven’t found a better form of passive income.

You too can make great money from home.

To further assist you, we’ve got a huge community filled with new and experienced people alike.

Here’s a newbie who are already building for a great future:

This coaching program will teach you everything you need to know with the help of a growing community of seriously experienced and high level digital marketers.

I hope you decide to join the community and make some real, life changing money.

You’ll be happy you did.

Jordan Mackey Course – Make Money On Youtube Made Easy Review 2019

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You don’t have to be a charismatic superstar to make big money on YouTube.

 In fact, you don’t even have to make videos to make money on YouTube.

After several trial and error courses, including Jordan Mackey’s “Make Money Easy On Youtube”, you could say I have become an expert in what NOT to do.

The plus side? I am able to say I earn $50k a month, and so I also clearly know what TO DO. The YouTube strategies in this particular course were certainly fascinating, and I did makes some money via YouTube, but I leveraged those skills along with business lead generation to get to where I am today which is $50k per month.

Today, I’ll be giving a straightforward, non-bias review of Jordan’s course as well as comparing his process with my main go-to for passive income which is business lead gen.

Who is Jordan Mackey?

Image result for Jordan Mackey – Make Money On Youtube Made Easy

Jordan Mackey is a digital entrepreneur who has dipped his toe into many lucrative digital ventures.

From social media to affiliate marketing, Jordan has found new and innovative ways to make money through digital content.

What he discovered about YouTube nearly blew his mind. He could repurpose existing video content for profit. He didn’t need to a video specialist either.

He became a broker for ad content and started earning serious money with the most basic YouTube channel.

Make Money On YouTube Made Easy 2019 Summary

Jordan shows you how easy it is to earn top dollar. Search YouTube for high-ranking video content. Lots of views. Lots of subscribers.

You download that content. You post it on your own video channel. The difference is that you amplify its selling value.

You use some basic SEO skills to optimize the video. You tag it to get more views. You create more impressive thumbnails to get the attention of the YouTube universe. Then you include ads.

You can monetize the existing content for yourself.

How is this legal? What about copyright laws?  Isn’t this stealing?

This approach is completely above board. You just have to identify certain videos to reuse.

 Jordan will explain all that in the course.

That’s just the beginning of what you’ll discover. You will also learn all that you need to know to be successful in YouTube video reposting:

·         How to research high performance video content

·         How to build your own YouTube channel

·         Intro to the YouTube dashboard

·         Generating titles that get searched

·         Using tags to optimize SEO

·         Generating copy content to enhance video performance

·         Creating effective thumbnails

·         Including ads in your video content

·         Monetizing video for steady income

Jordan gives you the intel and tools to transform YouTube into your own personal moneymaker.

See what videos you can repurpose for personal profit. You will be amazed at how many of these videos exist and are not being monetized.

Go on a deep dive into changing these videos into your own content. See how the complete back end of YouTube works.

 Jordan will give you case studies on title optimization and copy and how they enhance viewing and subscriptions.

Get direct insight on tagging and YouTube SEO that has made Jordan an expert.

Get the lowdown on how to place ads on these videos so that they can start earning money for you every day.

Before long, you will be sitting back in your home office watching videos make you big money. 

Every view and subscription is added revenue in your bank account.

Never worry about copyright laws or licensing.

With Jordan’s help and guidance, you will be a YouTube broker with big bucks. 

While Jordan’s YouTube Skills are Fire, I Personally Found Much More Success Through This…

This simple model will amaze you. 

It shows you how to create websites for small businesses who just don’t have the ability to market themselves. 

By getting leads for them, you can start making them— and yourself— so much money. 

There’s already so many buyers out there who are looking for these company’s products and services. You just have to help these people find them. 

Let’s see how the two processes we’ve talked about compare:

Cons of Youtube Content Repurposing

  • Risk of loss of channel and subscribers
  • Channel growth will be immensely difficult
  • Can get lost in the sea of other Youtubers
  • Income based on viewers, so it can be unreliable and inconsistent

Why Business Lead Gen Was Ideal For Me

  • Reliable Monthly Income
  • Help local businesses grow and build relationships with them
  • Ownership of all digital domains you create
  • Once established the website will just continue to generate leads and becomes passive income

Pay attention to this limo service’s rank on Google’s search results:

That’s what makes your site valuable and why they’ve been paying me for years now.

Just forwarding the leads to the business owners is all they need to benefit from what you do.

I told you it was simple! 

You’d also have full ownership of the websites. So, if someone drops you for whatever reason, you won’t have to start from scratch. Just sell the leads elsewhere.

Better yet, the websites need little to no help staying at the top once they’re ranked. 

So once your site is finished and gaining leads, your work with that website is finished!

That’s what makes it possible for me to manage several sites without a problem and make so much money off of them monthly. 

The owners of this tree care business have been paying me every month since 2014 for the leads I get them:

But how much money are we talking?

Two thousand dollars. Every month.

I haven’t found a better opportunity out there, it’s been my only way to make a living for the past 5 years. 

We’ve also got a thriving community filled with people just starting and people who have been doing this for years.

We all help each other, so don’t ever think your on your own out there!

This guy’s already off to a great start:

By taking this business lead generation course, you’ll never have to work long shifts ever again. 

Join this growing community of successful entrepreneurs and get as much mentoring you need to start making the passive income you’ve always dreamed of.

Jordan Mackey Course – Youtube Advanced Masterclass Review 2019

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If you’ve made some money on YouTube, its time take those earnings to the next level.

Advanced YouTube marketing can amplify your content, identify and target robust audience sets and increase your monetization potential.

There are so many platforms you can leverage nowadays to make money online.

I’m proud to say I’ve reached my goal of $50k per month as of 2019. Along with implementing this method, as well as another online passive income strategy which is simple lead generation for business owners .

In this article, I will review Jordan’s Youtube Advanced Masterclass course and compare using Youtube marketing for profits to my main income source, business lead gen.

Who is Jordan Mackey?

Jordan Mackey was a business professional who hated the office life. He turned to digital marketing to free up his time.

He quickly became a leader in YouTube marketing. His proven methods for brokering YouTube videos and turning them into cold cash has made him a digital marketing sensation.

He is upping his game. His Advanced Masterclass in YouTube takes all of his teachings and pumps them on steroids.

There’s more to learn and with significantly more profits.

YouTube Advanced Masterclass Summary

If you follow Jordan’s lead you are probably already killing it on YouTube.

After teaching you how to make it big through video brokering, Jordan expanded his course offering.

He got deeper into YouTube marketing. He wanted to perfect his process.

As a result, his masterclass explores audience sets in a complex level. Rather than hoping searchers on Google find the videos you’ve tagged, Jordan has developed methods to target key audiences based on video content.

His niche techniques are nothing new to digital marketing, but they are new to YouTube.

Videos were considered a landing pad for searchers on the internet, just another form of consumable content.

Jordan found that focusing niche with video was a whole new ball game and highly profitable.

Here is what he reveals in this amazing course:

·         How to detect niche market audiences

·         How to align video content with key viewers

·         How to branch out your video channels for different niches

·         How to scale your growth using these proven methods

With niche marketing tactics that Jordan teaches, you eliminate the guesswork. You can start targeting the ideal audience with relevant content. That means more views and more subscriptions. That translates into more monetization!

Jordan shows you how to organize video content through diverse channels. You are essentially creating a YouTube empire network. Each channel speaks to different audience sets. You just keep loading it with fresh content.

Jordan takes you deeper into marketing your video channels. He shows how Facebook, Twitter and even Pinterest become powerful methods for promoting videos and driving up sales.

Jordan helps you create clearly defined marketing goals with budgets in mind, so you always experience high ROI.

He brings back his best practices so that you can optimize your content perfectly. That means strong written content, proper tagging and SEO.

You are not only boosting existing content, but now targeting the optimal viewers.

Jordan shows you how to craft ads specifically for target audiences and generate vastly more income with this approach.

If you are content with your YouTube earnings, then this course is not for you.

If you are ready to supercharge your YouTube campaigns, then Jordan will give you the energizing intel that will transform your YouTube profits and performance.

While Youtube Marketing Is Very Valid, I’m Much Happier With This Method…

Here’s where it begins…

A small business needs people to make deals with. Problem is, they don’t have a large enough presence to get those people.

So, I get on my laptop, make a website, rank it on Google’s search results, and sell the leads I get to them.

They pay me for the leads my website generates and they thrive off the business my website gets them.

Everyone is making profits. It’s a simple process where everyone wins.

I’d be willing to bet that you’re interested on how does this compare to Youtube marketing:

Cons of Youtube Marketing

  • Channel growth is a long and difficult process. Not to mention results aren’t guaranteed.
  • Income is not very reliable or consistent
  • Low security
  • Risk of developing a bad reputation

Why I’m Very Happy With Business Lead Gen

  • Basically sells itself
  • Reliable and consistent monthly income
  • Help local businesses reach their potential
  • If a business drops you, you keep the website

Do you see how my limo service website tops the search results?

That’s a huge part in it generating leads. It’s basically what sells your website.

And once your website is there, you won’t have to do anything else for that website. It becomes a source of passive income.

But what if a company decides they don’t want you anymore?

Well, it’s YOUR website. You keep the site and its rank, just move the leads to another company that wants to pay. No risk.

Here is a tree service site. We’ve been working together since 2014. They’ve never missed a payment:

I’m earning $2k a month from that site alone. And you’d better bet I’ve got several businesses paying me for websites.

It’s such a wonderful process, that I couldn’t be more grateful to have stumbled upon.

But, don’t just take my word for it.

We’ve got a huge community out there. Both old members and new.

Here’s someone who is already building his passive income:

And they’ve all taken the same business lead generation course.

This is a great opportunity to build something, and like me and thousands of others, you won’t look back.

Kody Course – Youtube Mastery Class Review 2019

While YouTube continues to make millionaires with viral content, most people don’t realize that there are specific methods for creating that success.

In other words, it’s not an accident. Influencers and viral content producers already know the drill.

There have been several techniques I’ve used to earn a living. This one has certainly helped me pay the bills, I wanted a bit more.

So, I’ve combined this method with getting leads for local businesses and I am now earning $50k per month.

Today, I will review Kody’s course, “Youtube Mastery Class”, and compare making Youtube videos with using business lead generation to make passive income.

Who is Kody?

Image result for Kody Course – Youtube Mastery Class

Kody is a professional Youtuber. He has created numerous channels and all are monetizing.

His videos bring in high income on a monthly basis and his subscription levels continue to grow.

Kody created this course to show how easy it is to turn YouTube into a consistent revenue stream.

YouTube Mastery Class Summary

Kody built his course knowing that many may not even know anything about using YouTube, other than looking at videos.

He created really engaging training modules to expose the backend dashboard of YouTube. This is where the magic happens.

Kody walks you through the process of setting up a channel. He shows how to upload video content and how to make it perform at its best.

Most importantly he shows you how to set up your account to start making money from views.

The back end isn’t technical at all, so Kody easily walks you through the steps for posting content. He also includes a training module on modifying content.

That means editing video directly on the YouTube platform.

The most interesting fact is that YouTube is just like any other web page. It has SEO value.

Kody gives you the best practices for optimizing both your channel and each video you load.

He even includes a checklist so you can mark your way through the optimization process:

·         Doing your keyword research to define your video’s SEO value

·         Generating a title that captures Google’s and your audience’s attention

·         Writing intro content that informs and engages your audience beyond the video

·         Adding links to additional web content where you can sell even more

·         Adding tags that enhance the SEO performance of the page

·         Creating title cards easily on the dashboard for audience engagement

Creating these highly optimized videos is only part of your process. Kody then takes you into what it takes to create viral content.

He shows how you can capture other certain high-ranking content, edit it and make it your own. This is absolutely legal.

Lots of free use content is actually performing extremely well on YouTube. By taking ownership you can begin earning money directly from views of this free content.

Kody’s goal is to help you earn as much as you can from videos on Youtube.

He shows you many of the ways videos become viral sensations and how to create shadow content that captures these engaged audiences.

He includes case studies and actual research that reveals the success of these trends.

He goes in-depth into what a little research and some common sense can produce on your own.

Videos on YouTube continue to bring in huge audiences with little effort. Kody wants to give you every detail that goes into creating video content that users want.

This is the best way to optimize your YouTube account into a moneymaker. 

It Was a Great Experience, But I’ve Had a Better One With This…

Firstly, let’s compare the two methods I’ve mentioned.

What You Won’t Like About Making Youtube Videos

  • Even with a method, going viral is a shot in the dark
  • You might get lost in the amount of Youtubers there are
  • Video production is costly
  • Incredibly time-consuming

Why I Endorse Generating Leads for Businesses

  • Once a website is done, there is no requirement of maintenance
  • Income is consistent
  • Sells itself
  • Help businesses grow

Here’s where it starts…

Smaller businesses have a lot of trouble getting their name out there.

If they can’t draw attention they won’t be able to make the profits they need to survive.

And that’s where people like us come in.

We make a website, rank it up on a search engine, and forward the hits it gets to the business who’s paying us.

Pretty simple work once you get the hang of it.

Here’s a website I started for a limousine service. You’ll see its got a high ranking on Google:

This high ranking is what gets the website more attention and adds value it.

Plus, once it is getting leads, you won’t have to touch it ever again.

It just sits there earning you passive income and generating leads for your client.

And don’t sweat it if a company doesn’t need your service anymore.

Since you own the site, you keep the website and its rank stays as well, all you have to do is move those leads to another company that is willing to pay.

This is a tree care service that has been paying me $2k a month for about four years now:

Don’t worry about being lost when you’re starting out.

There is a large, active community who all are in this line of work. They can guide you if you’ve got any questions on your mind.

This person is already off to an amazing start:

You’ll learn all you need to thrive in this line of work with this online lead gen for businesses course.

I wish you the best in your venture toward a building your own profitable lead gen empire!

Viking Warrior from Birka Grave Confirmed as female

War was not an activity exclusive to males in the Viking world. A new study conducted by researchers at Stockholm and Uppsala Universities shows that women could be found in the higher ranks at the battlefield. Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, who led the study, explains: “What we have studied was not a Valkyrie from the sagas but a real life military leader, that happens to be a woman“.

The study was conducted on one of the most iconic graves from the Viking Age. It holds the remains of a warrior surrounded by weapons, including a sword, armour-piercing arrows, and two horses. There were also a full set of gaming pieces and a gaming board. “The gaming set indicates that she was an officer“, says Charlotte, “someone who worked with tactics and strategy and could lead troops in battle“. The warrior was buried in the Viking town of Birka during the mid-10th century. Isotope analyses confirm an itinerant life style, well in tune with the martial society that dominated 8th to 10th century northern Europe.

Anna Kjellström, who also participated in the study, has taken an interest in the burial previously. “The morphology of some skeletal traits strongly suggests that she was a woman, but this has been the type specimen for a Viking warrior for over a century why we needed to confirm the sex in any way we could.”

And this is why the archaeologists turned to genetics, to retrieve a molecular sex identification based on X and Y chromosomes. Such analyses can be quite useful according to Maja Krezwinska: “Using ancient DNA for sex identification is useful when working with children for example, but can also help to resolve controversial cases such as this one“. Maja was thus able to confirm the morphological sex identification with the presence of X chromosomes but the lack of a Y chromosome.

Jan Storå, who holds the senior position on this study, reflects over the history of the material: “This burial was excavated in the 1880s and has served as a model of a professional Viking warrior ever since. Especially, the grave-goods cemented an interpretation for over a century“. It was just assumed she was a man through all these years. “The utilization of new techniques, methods, but also renewed critical perspectives, again, shows the research potential and scientific value of our museum collections“.

The study is a part of the ongoing ATLAS project, which is a joint effort by Stockholm University and Uppsala University, supported by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (The Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences) and Vetenskapsrådet (The Swedish Research Council), to investigate the genetic history of Scandinavia.

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Neanderthal Bones From Goyet Show Signs of Butchering

Neanderthal bones from an excavation in Belgium have yielded evidence of intentional butchering. The findings, from the Goyet caves near Namur, are the first evidence of cannibalism among Neanderthals north of the Alps. The skeletal remains were radiocarbon-dated to an age of around 40,500 to 45,500 years. This group of late Neanderthals also used the bones of their dead as tools, which were used to shape other tools of stone.

Professors Hervé Bocherens and Johannes Krause of Tübingen’s Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, along with Cosimo Posth and Christoph Wissing, also of the University of Tübingen, took part in the investigations. A review of the finds from the Troisième caverne of Goyet combined results from various disciplines; it identified 99 previously uncertain fragments as Neanderthal bones. That means Goyet has yielded the greatest amount of Neanderthal remains north of the Alps.

By making a complete analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of ten Neanderthals, the researchers doubled the existing genetic data. They confirmed earlier studies’ results, which showed relatively little genetic variation in late European Neanderthals – in other words, that they were closely related to one another. The findings have been published in the latest Scientific Reports (open access).

The Troisième caverne of Goyet was excavated nearly 150 years ago. Today, researchers are able to extract vast amounts of information using current methods – such as precise digital measurement and categorization of the bones, examination of the conditions in which the bone fragments were preserved, as well as isotopic and genetic analysis.

The different modifications: the femur left shows percussion pits and a percussion notch and the femur right shows cutmarks. Femur right als shows retouching marks left from its use to retouch the edges of stone tools. Image: RBINS
The different modifications: the femur left shows percussion pits and a percussion notch and the femur right shows cutmarks. Femur right also shows retouching marks left from its use to retouch the edges of stone tools. Image: RBINS

Some Neanderthal remains from Goyet have been worked by human hands, as evidenced by cut marks, pits and notches. The researchers see this as an indication that the bodies from which they came were butchered. This appears to have been done thoroughly; the remains indicate processes of skinning, cutting up, and extraction of the bone marrow. “These indications allow us to assume that Neanderthals practised cannibalism,” says Hervé Bocherens. But he adds that it is impossible to say whether the remains were butchered as part of some symbolic act, or whether the butchering was carried out simply for food. “The many remains of horses and reindeer found in Goyet were processed the same way,” Bocherens says. Researchers have long debated the evidence of cannibalism among Neanderthals, which until now focused on the sites of El Sidrón and Zafarraya in Spain and two French sites, Moula-Guercy and Les Pradelles. The Troisième caverne of Goyet is the first example of this phenomenon from more northern parts of Europe.

Bones as tools
Four bones from Goyet clearly indicate that Neanderthals used their deceased relatives’ bones as tools; one thigh bone and three shinbones were used to shape stone tools. Animal bones were frequently used as knapping tools. “That Neanderthal bones were used for this purpose – that’s something we had seen at very few sites, and nowhere as frequently as in Goyet,” Bocherens says.

The new findings open up many possibilities regarding the way late Neanderthals dealt with their dead in this last period before they died out. Bocherens says none of the other Neanderthal sites in the region have yielded indications that the dead were dealt with as they were in Goyet. On the contrary, they have yielded burials. Researchers say that, in addition, other northern European Neanderthal sites had a greater variety and various arsenals of stone tools. “The big differences in the behaviour of these people on the one hand, and the close genetic relationship between late European Neanderthals on the other, raise many questions about the social lives and exchange between various groups,” says Bocherens.

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Body in Well Confirms Viking Saga

Archaeologists working in Trondheim in Norway are amazed by the discovery of a human skeleton in the bottom of an abandoned castle well. The skeleton provides evidence that confirms dramatic historical events mentioned in the Sagas.

The location and contents of the well are mentioned in Sverre’s Saga, a chronicle of one of the kings of Norway, and one of very few historical manuscripts describing events in the Norwegian Viking age and medieval period.

Scholars have questioned the chronicle’s trustworthiness as a historical document. But now, at least one part of the saga seems to hold truth – down to the tiniest detail.

“This is truly astonishing. As far as I know there is no known example of the discovery of an individual historically connected with an act of war as far back as the year 1197. And the fact that this actually corroborates an event described in Sverre’s saga is simply amazing“, says lead archaeologist at the site, Anna Petersén.

Man left in castle well for 800 years
In 1197 King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner-mercenaries were attacked and defeated in his castle stronghold, Sverresborg, by his rivals, the Baglers. According to the Saga, the Baglers burned down buildings and destroyed the castle’s fresh water supply by throwing one of King Sverre’s dead men into the well, and then filling it with stones.

Now, following a trial excavation in the well, archaeologists can confirm this dramatic story. Archaeologists managed to retrieve part of the skeleton they found in the well in 2014. A fragment of bone produced a radiocarbon date that confirmed that the individual lived and died at the end of the 12th century, the same time as the incident described in the Saga.

Skeleton and well structure
The archaeologists from The Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research have returned this year to conduct a full excavation of the well with the goal of removing the layers of dumped stone and ultimately the whole skeleton.

The excavation of the stone debris down to the very first stone that hit the Birkebeiner’s body has given the archaeologists additional insight into the nature of events in 1197. In addition, it exposed the timber posts and lining for the large castle well.

“This is a unique glimpse of an important historical event. You can almost feel it. Its almost as if you were there“, says Petersén.

The archaeologists at Sverresborg are being supported by a forensic specialist from the Trondheim police district, which adds to the feeling that we are witnesses to the result of a brutal crime.

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Discovering a Roman Imperial Winery at Vagnari Italy

Create a functional website

Any trade that doesn’t invest in a functional website from the very start is doomed to fail. Limiting yourself to Facebook and other accessible social media pages without linking your website on every post isn’t enough to make your drop-shipping venture successful. Also, successful digital marketing basics dictate that you should always have prospective customers in mind when developing your website.

In other words, the prospective customers should not only have an easy time browsing but also searching for whatever items they want. If your website speeds are too slow, or the fonts aren’t reader-friendly, you lose. That’s just how cutthroat drop-shipping is. So that’s why you’ll have to leave no proverbial stone unturned. Once your website is done and you are confident about its functionality, it’s time to move on to the next step.

Quality assurance

No matter how good your items look on paper, your drop-shipping venture won’t succeed if the quality is terrible. And that’s where proper network marketing comes in. Supplying the best quality products from top suppliers is very important. Quality assurance is mandatory because the moment prospective customers associate your drop-shipping enterprise with low-quality items, that’ll be the beginning of your end.

In other words, for you to make money online, you’ll have to back your social media marketing up with quality. That’s why taking an excellent internet marketing course is always encouraged, especially if you want to handle everything correctly. Once you’ve found the right suppliers and command a sizable social media presence, then you can kick-start your online advertising campaign without any hesitation.

Regular posting

Prospective buyers tend to follow social media pages that not only publish relevant content but do so regularly. Therefore, scheduling regular informative posts for your followers is, without a doubt, an astute business strategy that will have a positive impact on your drop-shipping venture. For instance, creating about three to four informative posts every day is enough to solidify your pages as the go-to source of drop-shipping information.

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Archaeologists Uncover Bronze Age Trade Routes Between Iran and Mesopotamia

The impressive statues of ancient Mesopotamian rulers bear witness to the wealth of Bronze Age Akkadian and Sumerian city-states more than four thousand years ago. But they are made of black diorite and gabbro stone not found in the region of today’s Iraq and northeastern Syria. Where did it come from? The blocks of stone must have been transported along ancient roads from distant trading partners to the Bronze Age cities of Mesopotamia.

A team of researchers from the University of Tübingen’s ResourceCultures collaborative research centre has investigated the origins of the stone and the methods used to move such heavy loads over great distances. The team from Tübingen collaborates with the Iranian Centre of Archaeological Research (ICAR) to find the answers and is jointly headed by Professor Peter Pfälzner and Nader Soleimani.

Kerman Province
The archaeologists found diorite and gabbro in the Iranian province of Kerman, not far from the Persian Gulf, which matches that used in the Mesopotamian statues. In the same area, the archaeologists also found deposits of chlorite, which was used to make stone vessels traded as far away as Mesopotamia and the Levant. Close to these deposits, the researchers found petroglyphs and Early Bronze Age settlements, indicating that the stone was quarried during the Jiroft Culture of southeastern Iran (approx. 3000-2000 B.C.), and that it was traded across the Near East.

One of the recently-discovered settlements may have been a production and distribution centre for the valuable stone. “This shows that the civilizations of Mesopotamia and southeastern Iran were in direct contact in the Early Bronze Age,” says Pfälzner of the Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies. “The Persian Gulf most likely served as a trade route.” Pfälzner said this illustrated the great significance of this waterway in the international ties between important regions – from the Bronze Age to the present day.

Aerial photography
Pfälzner and his Iranian colleague Nader Soleimani are jointly heading research into an area of 110 by 120 kilometres in Kerman Province – both on the ground and from the air using unmanned aircraft. Until now, there has been little archaeological research conducted in the hot, dry region south of the city of Jiroft. Using aerial photography, the team creates 3D models of ancient settlements (tells) from the Jiroft Culture era and other historical periods up to the coming of Islam. Along the potential trade routes running between high mountain chains to the coast of the Persian Gulf, the team is looking out for Early Bronze Age way-stations and any other trade activity. The German-Iranian team has so far mapped and investigated 42 settlements.

Now that the initial investigations have yielded results, work is set to resume in Iran in February 2016. The researchers are hoping to find out more about where the Bronze Age trade routes ran between the Jiroft Culture and the city-states of Mesopotamia, as well as what sort of effects this early long-distance trade had on Iranian civilizations more than four thousand years ago.

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Evidence for Plant Cultivation at 23000-Year-Old Site in Galilee

The Middle East is called the “Cradle of Civilization” because it is where our hunter-gatherer ancestors first established sedentary farming communities. Recently, the traditional dating of humans’ first agricultural attempt was shaken up by the discovery of the earliest-known example of plant cultivation in the Levant, 11,000 years earlier than previously accepted.

The team of archaeologists, botanists, and ecologists from Bar-Ilan University, Haifa University, Tel Aviv University, and Harvard University published their work in the scientific journal Plos One (Open Access).

The team’s conclusions rest on three inter-connected findings, says the lead researcher, Prof. Ehud Weiss of Bar-Ilan University’s Martin (Szusz) Department of Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology. First is the higher-than-usual presence at the site of domestic-type, rather than wild-type, wheat and barley dispersal units. Second, the researchers noted a high concentration of proto-weeds – plants of the type known to flourish in fields planted with domesticated crops. Finally, analysis of the tools found at the site revealed blades used for cutting and harvesting cereal plants.

First author is Dr. Ainit Snir, part of whose doctoral research – conducted in Prof. Weiss’ lab – is included in the present study.

An agricultural “time capsule” hidden under the sea
The researchers’ discovery was made at Ohalo II, a 23,000-year-old camp site of a community of hunter-gatherers that lived on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The site is located 9 kilometres (5.5 miles) south of the modern city of Tiberias, and was discovered in 1989 when the level of the lake plummeted. The site was then excavated for six seasons by Prof. Dani Nadel from the Zinman Institute of Archaeology, the University of Haifa. Excavations at Ohalo II exposed six brush hut dwellings, a human grave, copious and well-preserved remains of both animal and plant foods, beads from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as evidence of flint tool manufacture and use.

According to Weiss, the study represents the earliest example of small-scale cultivation found anywhere in the world.

“The plant remains from the site were unusually well-preserved because of being charred and then covered by sediment and water which sealed them in low-oxygen conditions,” Weiss explains. “Due to this, it was possible to recover an extensive amount of information on the site and its inhabitants – which made this a uniquely preserved site, and therefore one of the best archaeological examples worldwide of hunter-gatherers’ way of life. Here we see evidence of repeated sowing and harvesting of later domesticated cereals.”

From plant gathering to flour production
In the Ohalo II dwellings was a particularly rich assemblage of some 150,000 plant remains, showing that the site’s residents gathered over 140 different plant species from the surrounding environment. Among these, Weiss’s team identified edible cereals – such as wild emmer, wild barley, and wild oats. These cereals were mixed with 13 species of “proto-weeds” – ancient ancestors of the current weeds known to flourish in cultivated, single-crop fields – indicating that they grew and were subsequently unintentionally gathered together.

A grinding slab set firmly on a brush hut floor, a stone tool from which microscopic cereal starch granules were extracted, as well as a unique distribution pattern of seeds around this tool, provided additional, unequivocal evidence that cereal grains were brought into the hut and processed into flour. This flour was probably used to make dough, maybe by baking it on an installation of flat stones, found just outside one of the shelters.

Plants’ statistics show genetic change linked with cultivation
Examination of the cereals found at the site shows an unusual percentage of domesticated-type, rather than wild-type, ear morphology. As Weiss explains, this change in the plant population is characteristic of a genetic mutation triggered when wild-type plants are sown repeatedly in cultivated fields.

“The ears of cereals like wheat and barley – in their wild form – are built from separate units that break off and are easily dispersed, allowing the seeds to reach the ground, germinate, and grow into a new plant without any human intervention,” he says. “When humans cultivate these grains over a number of successive seasons, however, a change occurs. They develop a rough scar that locks the seed dispersal units together. Such plants cannot sow themselves. This is the hallmark of domesticated, rather than wild-type plants.”

As part of Snir’s thesis, Weiss and Snir undertook field tests around Israel, establishing that stands of wild-type barley are characterized by a low level of this rough-scar appearance – about 10% of the total population. The study of Ohalo II’s plant remains, however, revealed a greatly-increased incidence of 36% mutated domestic-type disarticulation units – proving that planned cereal sowing and harvesting in this ancient community had been underway for years.

Tools for harvesting
Another intriguing finding relates to a number of sickle blades – harvesting tools composed of sharp flint implements inserted in wood or bone handles – found at the site; these are among the oldest of their kind ever found.

“We found several sickle blades at Ohalo II, and the study under the microscope of the gloss along their cutting edge indicates that they were used for harvesting cereals just before their complete ripening,” says Prof. Dani Nadel. “Analysis showed the presence of silicon, transferred from the wheat and barley plants at the time of cutting. This is another indication that the presence of a high percentage of domestic-type cereals was not random, but rather is a sign of the long-term cultivation practices of the site’s residents.”

Weeds and planted fields
When studying the plants found at Ohalo II, the researchers were surprised to find a large number of plants similar to weeds previously seen only 11,000 years later than Ohalo II, at the traditional date for the beginning of agriculture. Does this indicate that agriculture indeed began much earlier than historians, archaeologists and botanists have traditionally believed? Weiss says that the isolated example on the shores of the Sea of Galilee is an insufficient basis for such a claim.

“From what we see at Ohalo II, it is clear that cultivation occurred at this surprisingly early point in time, but we have no evidence that it continued in the region,” Weiss says. “This is why we term our findings to be evidence of trial cultivation only. Moreover, since weeds are defined by botanists as plants that developed in response to human agriculture, we call the plants that share characteristics with weeds ‘proto-weeds’.”

A trial that preceded later-adopted practice
Prof. Marcelo Sternberg, a co-author of the paper who is an ecologist at the Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants at Tel Aviv University, claims that the findings are exceptional. “We are witnessing the earliest trial of cultivation combined with land-use changes that led to the appearance of the earliest weeds. The findings are a clear indication of early human disturbance of the natural ecosystem.”

Weiss agrees, adding that the current study provides reason to rethink our ancestors’ abilities. “Even prior to full-scale cultivation, humans clearly had some basic knowledge of agriculture and even more importantly, exhibited foresight and planning,” Weiss says. “The current research results from this site, situated in the cradle of ancient civilizations, show our ancestors were cleverer and more skilled than we had assumed. Although full-scale agriculture did not develop until much later, the attempt had already begun.”

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